Eric Fichtl

 
Home   |   About   |   Gallery   |   Texts   |   Services
 

Fair Trade Movement Notes and Sources

Notes

All web addresses were referenced and functional in May 2007.

  1. The source of this definition is FINE, a joint working group of leading fair trade associations: Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), International Fair Trade Association (IFAT), Network of European World Shops (NEWS), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). 
  2. Littrell and Dickson, p. 5
  3. Maseland and De Vaal, p. 255. The term “fairness” is italicized for emphasis in the original text.
  4. Jaffee et al, pp. 171-173
  5. Goodman and Goodman, pp. 108-110
  6. Hudson and Hudson, p. 413
  7. Nicholls and Opal, p. 154
  8. Leclair, p. 954
  9. Renard, p. 496
  10. Ransom, p. 22
  11. Tallontire’s stages of fair trade development are presented in Tallontire (2000) pp. 167-169 and in Tallontire (2006) pp. 36-38.
  12. Moore, p. 76
  13. Barratt Brown (1993) has a chapter titled “In and Against the Market”. Raynolds (2000) also employs the phrase, p. 299.
  14. Fridell (2003)
  15. Marie-Christine Renard cited in Moore, p. 76
  16. Fridell (2004) p. 417
  17. Grimes, p. 12
  18. Tallontire (2006) p. 36
  19. MCC promotional brochure from 1995, cited in Littrell and Dickson, p. 65
  20. Ten Thousand Villages website, “From ‘The Needlework Lady’ to Today’s Craftswoman: A Brief History”: http://www.tenthousandvillages.com/php/about.us/history.php
  21. Littrell and Dickson, p. 62
  22. Littrell and Dickson, pp. 62-63. Ten Thousand Villages website, “From ‘The Needlework Lady’ to Today’s Craftswoman: A Brief History”: http://www.tenthousandvillages.com/php/about.us/history.php
  23. Littrell and Dickson, p. 63
  24. Contemporary SERRV mission statement cited in Littrell and Dickson, p. 94
  25. Littrell and Dickson, p. 90
  26. Littrell and Dickson, pp. 94-95. SERRV/A Greater Gift website, “Our History”: http://www.agreatergift.org/AboutUs/OurHistory.aspx
  27. Barratt Brown, p. 156
  28. Oxfam UK website, “A Short History of Oxfam: In the Beginning”: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/about_us/history/index.htm
  29. Nicholls and Opal, p. 20
  30. Kocken “Fifty Years of Fair Trade”. Mayoux and Williams “Case Study: Oxfam Fair Trade”
  31. Oxfam UK website, “A Short History of Oxfam: Growing and Developing”: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/about_us/history/history2.htm
  32. Oxfam UK website, “A Short History of Oxfam: Growing and Developing”
  33. Oxfam UK website, “Retail Success”: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/about_us/history/history4.htm
  34. Tallontire (2006) p. 36. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”. Fair Trade Original Annual Report 2005 p. 14
  35. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”
  36. Stefan Durwael was the General Director of Fair Trade Organisatie in 1994, when his remarks titled “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands” were recorded. Fair Trade Organisatie was the then-current name of SOS Stichtung; the Dutch ATO pioneer also operated under the name SOS Wereldhandel in the 1970s and 1980s, and now calls itself Fair Trade Original (http://www.fairtrade.nl). Durwael is now the Director of IFAT.
  37. Fair Trade Original Annual Report 2005 p. 14
  38. Fair Trade Original Annual Report 2005 p. 14
  39. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”. Kocken “Fifty Years of Fair Trade”
  40. Littrell and Dickson, p. 63
  41. Mayoux and Williams “Case Study: Oxfam Fair Trade”
  42. van Tongeren, p. 496
  43. van Tongeren, pp. 496-497
  44. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”. van Tongeren, p. 497
  45. Socías Salvá and Doblas, p. 17
  46. van Tongeren, p. 497, Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”. Kocken “Fifty Years of Fair Trade”
  47. Durwael “(Short) History of Fair Trade”
  48. Barratt Brown, p. 156. James, p. 12
  49. Raynolds (2002) p. 4
  50. Equal Exchange website, “Our Co-op”: http://www.equalexchange.com/our-co-op
  51. Simpson and Rapone, p. 52. Equal Exchange website, “Our Story: A Vision of Fairness to Farmers”: http://www.equalexchange.com/story
  52. Simpson and Rapone, p. 52. Equal Exchange website, “Our Story: A Vision of Fairness to Farmers”
  53. Kocken “Fifty Years of Fair Trade”
  54. UCIRI website: http://www.uciri.org/espanol/espanol.htm. Simpson and Rapone, pp. 49-50
  55. Simpson and Rapone, p. 50
  56. Simpson and Rapone, p. 50
  57. UCIRI website, “Comercialización”: http://www.uciri.org/espanol/comercializacion.htm
  58. Littrell and Dickson, p. 5
  59. Tallontire (2000) p. 167
  60. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”
  61. The point about agriculture and artisanal work is K. Basu’s, cited in Littrell and Dickson, p. 10.
  62. Sugar Cane Action information from van Tongeren, p. 497. SOS’s trading partner was the Federation of Cooperatives of Coffee of Guatemala, or FEDECOCAGUA, formed by 19 activists in 1969 with the aim of improving “the living standards of small producers through their own efforts and in a solidaristic manner.” The pioneering coffee shipment went from FEDECOCAGUA to SOS in 1973. [FEDECOCAGUA website (author’s translation): http://www.fedecocagua.org/espanol/pagina_principal_all.htm. Fair Trade Original Annual Report 2005 p. 14. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”]
  63. Marjoleine Motz quotation in Simpson and Rapone, p. 48
  64. Tallontire (2000) p. 167
  65. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”
  66. Littrell and Dickson, p. 17
  67. Fridell (2004) p. 419. Littrell and Dickson, pp. 16-17
  68. Tallontire (2000) p. 168
  69. Tallontire (2006) p. 37. Tallontire (2000) p. 168
  70. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”
  71. Lang and Gabriel, p. 49
  72. Littrell and Dickson, p. 9. Ross, pp. 15-55. Waridel, p. 93
  73. Nicholls, p. 9
  74. Young, p. 4
  75. Humphrey Pring quoted in Tallontire (2000) p. 170
  76. Tiffen et al, p. 27
  77. Nicholls and Opal, p. 35
  78. Equal Exchange website, “Highlights 1986-1990”: http://www.equalexchange.com/1986. Equal Exchange website, “Highlights 1991-1995”: http://www.equalexchange.com/1991. These solidarity-oriented products included Café Nica, Samusala Tea (from Sri Lanka, in support of the Sarvodaya Shramadana development agency), Organic Peruvian coffee (the company’s first organic offering), and Café Libre (a blend of Tanzanian and Zimbabwean coffees that funneled proceeds to anti-apartheid groups).
  79. Equal Exchange website, “Highlights 1991-1995”
  80. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”
  81. Lynd, pp. 70-71
  82. Ten Thousand Villages internal staff communiqué cited in Littrell and Dickson, p. 67
  83. Littrell and Dickson, p. 74
  84. Quotation from a letter of Ten Thousand Villages board of directors to its staff, 1996. Cited in Littrell and Dickson, p. 79
  85. Paul Myers quoted in Littrell and Dickson, pp. 77-78
  86. Nicholls and Opal, p. 36
  87. Milgram, pp. 123-126. CCAP’s website is http://www.ccapfairtrade.com/index.php
  88. Barratt Brown, p. 157
  89. SERRV/A Greater Gift website, “About Us”: http://www.agreatergift.org/AboutUs.aspx. Ten Thousand Villages website, “About Us”: http://www.tenthousandvillages.com/php/about.us/index.php. Traidcraft website, “What is Fair Trade”: http://www.traidcraftshop.co.uk/content/default.asp?id=6. Oxfam Australia Trading Annual Report 2002/2003. Equal Exchange website, “What is Domestic Fair Trade”: http://www.equalexchange.com/what-is-domestic-fair-trade
  90. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 8-9. IFAT website: http://www.ifat.org
  91. IFAT Annual Report 2004. About 65 percent of IFAT members are in the global South, according to the IFAT website, “What is IFAT?”: http://www.ifat.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=512&Itemid=106
  92. Durwael “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands”
  93. EFTA website, “What is…?”: http://www.european-fair-trade-association.org/Efta/Doc/What.pdf. Nicholls and Opal, p. 9
  94. NEWS website: http://news.conaxis.de/index.php
  95. Jaffee et al, p. 173. Nicholls and Opal, p. 10
  96. The Max Havelaar Foundation was named for a fictional Dutch colonial officer stationed in Java who stood up for the rights of local coffee farmers.
  97. Nicholls and Opal, p. 127
  98. FLO’s standards are generated in a participatory process involving stakeholders from producer groups, vending organizations, FLO member organizations, and outside bodies. [FLO website, “Standards”: http://www.fairtrade.net/standards.html]
  99. This summary is based on an analysis of standards documentation at the FLO website, “Standards”: http://www.fairtrade.net/standards.html
  100. FLO website, “By Products”: http://www.fairtrade.net/by_products.html. Interestingly, sports balls (particularly soccer balls) represent an extension of fair trade certification into a product line that historically has been characterized by maquila-type manufactory production.
  101. FLO website, “By Products”
  102. Nicholls and Opal, p. 133
  103. FLO website: http://www.fairtrade.net
  104. Nicholls and Opal, p. 130. FLO website, “Producer Support”: http://www.fairtrade.net/producer_support.html
  105. Nicholls and Opal, p. 24
  106. Nicholls and Opal, p. 24. Waridel, p. 96
  107. IFAT website, “Monitoring: Building Trust in Fair Trade”: http://www.ifat.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=68#step2
  108. IFAT website, “The FTO Mark”: http://www.ifat.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3&Itemid=16
  109. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 8-9
  110. Tallontire (2000) p. 168
  111. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 100, 165
  112. Nicholls, p. 12
  113. Crane (2005) p. 225
  114. Harrison, pp. 62-63
  115. Low and Davenport, p. 151
  116. Cafédirect website, “Our Business”: http://www.cafedirect.co.uk/our_business/. Cafédirect Annual Report & Accounts 2004/5. Cafédirect Gold Standard
  117. Litvinoff and Madelay, p. 161. Tiffen et al, p. 15. Divine Chocolate Company website, “The Divine Story”: http://www.divinechocolate.com/about/story.aspx. Divine Chocolate Company website, “Facts and Figures”: http://www.divinechocolate.com/about/resources/facts-figures.aspx
  118. Doherty and Tranchell, p. 168
  119. Divine Chocolate Company website, “The Divine Story”
  120. Divine Chocolate Company website, “Inside Divine Chocolate”: http://www.divinechocolate.com/about/inside-divine.aspx
  121. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 100-101
  122. Doherty and Tranchell, p. 172
  123. Day Chocolate Company Accounts, cited in Doherty and Tranchell, p. 173
  124. Doherty and Tranchell, p. 174. Tiffen et al, pp. 20, 31-32
  125. Helena Bempong quotation cited in Tiffen et al, p. 23
  126. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 100-101. Doherty and Tranchell, pp. 171-172
  127. National Public Radio (2007)
  128. AgroFair Annual Report 2005. Economist “Thinking Out of the Box”. AgroFair website, “How was Agrofair founded?”: http://www.agrofair.nl/pages/faq.php?page_id=229&nieuws_id=109
  129. AgroFair website, “History”: http://www.agrofair.nl/pages/view.php?page_id=321
  130. AgroFair Annual Report 2005
  131. AgroFair Annual Report 2005
  132. AgroFair CEO Jeroen Kroezen letter in AgroFair Annual Report 2005
  133. Young refers to Cafédirect as selling “‘commercial’ fair trade coffee.” [Young p. 6]. The Co-operative Retail Group, a British supermarket chain, views fair trade as a key component of its “responsible retailing” strategy. [Doherty and Tranchell, p. 174]
  134. Crane (2000)
  135. Berry and McEachern, pp. 69-87. Mutersbaugh, p. 29. Tallontire (2002) p. 19. Levi and Linton, p. 426. Examples of concerns that were turned into product labels include dolphin-friendly tuna, bird-friendly coffee, forest-friendly timber, sweatshop-free clothing, energy-efficient lightbulbs and appliances, organic production, fair trade, etc.
  136. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 173-174. Litvinoff and Madeley, pp. 219-225
  137. Fridell (2004) p. 424. Fairtrade Federation website, “Convert your workplace”: http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/get_involved_workplace.htm
  138. Nicholls and Opal, p. 159
  139. IFAT website, “Global Journey”: http://www.ifat.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=72
  140. World Fair Trade Day website: http://www.wftday.org
  141. All the national initiatives except those of Canada, Switzerland, and the United States are now using the same FLO mark. FLO website, “The Certification Mark (CM)”: http://www.fairtrade.net/certification_mark.html
  142. IFOAM “Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade”. Fretel and Simoncelli-Bourque, p. 17
  143. Bastian (2006). Fretel and Simoncelli-Bourque, pp. 17-19. Parrish et al, pp. 182-188
  144. IFAT website, “More on Marks & Labels”: http://www.ifat.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=38&Itemid=71
  145. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 202-204. Tallontire (2002) p. 14-19
  146. Low end from IFAT Annual Report 2004. High end from Nicholls and Opal, p. 42
  147. Rice, p. 3
  148. Krier, p. 5
  149. FLO Annual Report 2005-6
  150. FLO Annual Report 2005-6
  151. FLO Annual Report 2005-6
  152. Fair Trade Federation 2005 Report: Fair Trade Trends in North America and the Pacific Rim
  153. Krier, p. 32
  154. Nicholls and Opal, p. 195
  155. FLO Annual Report 2004-5
  156. Murray et al, p. 7
  157. Parrish et al, p. 182
  158. Ronchi cited in Doherty and Tranchell, p. 173
  159. Fairtrade Bananas Impact Study
  160. Murray et al. Litvinoff and Madeley, pp. 38-39. Nicholls and Opal,  pp. 205-215. Tiffen et al, pp. 30-32. Taylor (2002) pp. 18-21. Bacon, p. 506
  161. Leclair, p. 957. Lindsey, pp. 3-5. Gendron et al, p. 32. Bacon, p. 505
  162. Gendron et al, p. 31
  163. Tallontire (2002) p. 23
  164. Low and Davenport have argued that “there cannot be a single unitary ‘history’ of the fair trade movement and that those that have been presented most often conceive change in the movement in linear epochal terms.” [p. 144]
  165. Fridell (2004) p. 412
  166. Fridell (2004) p. 412
  167. Fridell (2004) pp. 412-413
  168. For a discussion of the International Coffee Agreement, see Dicum and Luttinger, pp. 91-92.
  169. Fridell (2004) pp. 415-416
  170. Fridell (2004) p. 412
  171. Fridell (2004) p. 416
  172. Fridell (2004) pp. 416-417
  173. Fridell (2004) analyzes Barratt Brown, Michael. Fair Trade: Reform and Realities in the International Trading System. London: Zed Books, 1993.
  174. Fridell (2004) p. 418
  175. Fridell (2004) pp. 420-421
  176. Fridell (2004) p. 426
  177. Fridell (2004) p. 426
  178. Gendron et al, p. 30
  179. Gendron et al, p. 30
  180. Carol Wills quotation in Nicholls and Opal, p. 12. Wills goes on to point out a translational difficulty with the shift to the term “fair”: “[I]n English you have ‘fair’ and ‘ethical’ and there are shades of meaning between the two but there are other languages, such as Spanish or French, where there isn’t actually a real word for ‘fair’. The meaning gets slightly blurred and you cannot translate it at all in many countries in a way that means anything.”
  181. Nicholls and Opal, pp. 8-9
  182. Gendron et al, p. 16 (footnote 12)
  183. Burns and Blowfield, p. 26
  184. Gendron et al, p. 5
  185. Bravo (2007)
  186. Low and Davenport, p. 151
  187. Fridell (2006) p. 7
  188. Fairwashing is a play on “greenwashing,” a term that emerged in the 1980s to describe corporations’ questionable claims of improvement in their commitments to environmental stewardship.
  189. Low and Davenport, p. 159
  190. Claudia Salazar-Lewis quoted in Nicholls (2002) p. 14
  191. Fridell (2006). Waridel,  pp. 105-109
  192. Starbucks Company Fact Sheet February 2007
  193. Starbucks Company Profile February 2007
  194. James, pp. 13-14
  195. Starbucks Timeline February 2007
  196. Rogers (2004)
  197. Campher, p. 160
  198. Starbucks Company Profile February 2007
  199. Starbucks Corporate Social Responsibility Annual Report 2006. Fridell (2006) pp. 13-16
  200. Gallender (2002)
  201. Fridell (2006) pp. 10-13
  202. Fridell (2006) p. 10
  203. Rogers (2004) cites a Starbucks official who reports fair trade purchases of 1-2 percent in 2004. Starbucks Corporate Social Responsibility Annual Report 2006 reports the purchase of 294 million total pounds of coffee in FY2006, with 18 million pounds fair trade certified, or 6 percent. Thus far, this is the highest percentage of fair trade coffee Starbucks has included in its product offering.
  204. Young, p. 10
  205. Rogers (2004). Nicholls and Opal, p. 139
  206. Matt Earley, cofounder of Just Coffee, quotation in Rogers (2004)
  207. Paul Rice quotation in Rogers (2004)
  208. Carol Wills quotation in Nicholls and Opal, p. 246
  209. Bravo (2007)
  210. Dean’s Beans website, “Fair Trade Roadmap”: http://www.deansbeans.com/coffee/fair_trade_roadmap.html
  211. Part of the tension also revolves around the variant organizational structures and business ethos of fair trade organizations. As the profiles of fair trade organizations in this thesis demonstrate, there is a wide range of organizational structures in place in the fair trade movement, from religiously affiliated charities and development and advocacy groups with nonprofit status, to small businesses that include worker-owned cooperatives as well as owner-importer boutiques and world shops staffed primarily by volunteers, to producer cooperatives of several hundred or even several thousand farmer families, to for-profit companies—some of which are publicly traded—and overarching coordinator bodies and associations. There are hybrid models not analyzed at length in this work, and partnerships between differently structured organizations are also commonplace in the movement. With the example of Mexico’s Comercio Justo national labeling initiative, South-South fair trade is on the rise, and there is increasing talk of North-North linkages as well. The plethora of organizational structures and geographically dispersed stakeholders naturally results in a diverse range of views on a variety of topics pertaining to the movement’s growth and development. In this author’s view, this is entirely healthy for fair trade.
  212. Fridell (2004) p.  418
  213. Tallontire (2002) p. 22
  214. Gendron et al, p. 35
  215. Fridell (2006) pp. 4-7. Planet Bean website: http://www.planetbeancoffee.com
  216. See Lindsey (2004) for a critique of FLO’s minimum pricing from a neoliberal perspective.
  217. Adam Smith quotation cited in Holmes, p. 251
  218. Of interest, too, is the precedent of John Maynard Keynes, who was very much the intellectual father of the postwar fair trade movement in the sense of the term used by Fridell. While Keynes begins the following passage by describing the price-distorting powers of players very much at the opposite end of the spectrum from the primarily small producers which partake in fair trade, he nevertheless identifies the need for a clear link between producers’ sustainability and the need for stable prices for staple commodities: “These proposals, whilst seeking to avoid the violence of short-term price fluctuations, essentially depend on persuading those concerned that the long-term economic price, meaning by this the avoidance of an artificially high price by means of a producers’ monopoly and restriction of output, is the preferable and proper international policy, whatever domestic concessions by particular governments in favour of particular classes of their own producers may be desirable or inevitable. But this must not be taken to imply that basic prices should be fixed without regard to the requirements of a suitable standard of life for the majority of the producers concerned. A minority of producers with low standards of life must not be allowed to depress the international price of a commodity for all producers alike. A ‘low’ price is the ‘economic’ price in the above sense only if it reflects high efficiency, not if it merely reflects low standards. It is best defined as representing the long-period equilibrium costs of the most efficient producers on the assumption that the return to the latter is sufficient to provide them with the proper nutritional and other standards in the conditions in which they live. It is in the interest of all producers alike that the price of a commodity should not be depressed below this level, and consumers are not entitled to expect that it should.” [Keynes, p. 123]
  219. Nicholls and Opal, p. 41. FLO was not the first ATO to use floor prices; fairly traded coffee already had a floor price when FLO was formed. [Levi and Linton, p. 416]. FLO’s latest Product Standards and Fairtrade Minimum Prices are posted on the organization’s website at http://www.fairtrade.net/product_standards.html
  220. FLO website, “FAQ: Does paying farmers a fair price encourage more production and create an oversupply problem?”: http://www.fairtrade.net/faq_links.html?&no_cache=1
  221. Lindsey (2004)
  222. Hira and Ferrie, p. 114
  223. Taylor (2002) p. 26
  224. Nicholls and Opal, p. 241
  225. Lynd, p. 72
  226. Paul Myers quotation in Littrell and Dickson, p. 71
  227. Krier, p. 23 (footnote)
  228. Marlike Kocken cited in Moore, p. 78
  229. Lindsey, p. 2
  230. Beviglia Zampetti, pp. 178-179 (footnote 52)
  231. Becchetti and Adriani, p. 7
  232. Singer (2006)
  233. Gendron et al, p. 38
  234. Levi and Linton, p. 419
  235. Hira and Ferrie, p. 108. For the sake of comparison, witness the well-known neoliberal economist Milton Friedman on the issue of corporate social responsibility: “Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundations of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible.” [Friedman, p. 133]
  236. Polanyi (1944). Rather than using the noun “construct,” Polanyi’s preferred terminology is to say that “market society” was “established”—but he makes clear that this was a human development brought about by particular policies advocated by particular people (“the trading classes”), not some “natural” evolution of society. Polanyi called this process the Great Transformation, which he argues involved the intentional abandonment of norms that had governed all societies’ economies for millennia—namely, reciprocity, redistribution, and householding (production for self-sustenance, with the possibility of personal gain from selling surpluses), with markets playing only a small role—and their replacement by societies based on a belief in the conceptual ideal of a “self-regulating market.” Polanyi argues that this transformation required the subjugation of society to the market as the economy was separated from politics and humans and nature were made subservient to the imperatives of supply and demand: “the running of society as an adjunct to the market.” [Polanyi, p. 60]. Polanyi contends that this onset of “market society” was met by a series of counteractive protective measures wrought by the working and landed classes, an effect he calls the “double movement.” There are clear parallels with the fair trade movement.
  237. Polanyi, pp. 74-76, 136-137
  238. Polanyi, pp. 71-80
  239. Thompson, p. 136
  240. Paul Myers quotation in Littrell and Dickson, p. 66
  241. Gendron et al, p. 17
  242. Gendron et al, p. 35

Works Cited List

  • AgroFair Annual Report 2005. Available at: http://www.agrofair.nl/upload/File/AgroFair_Annual_Report_2005_secure_ENG.pdf
  • Bacon, Christopher (2005) “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005 pp. 497-511
  • Bastian, Hope (2006) “Keeping Fair Trade Fair in Mexico” NACLA Report on the Americas Vol. 39, No. 6, May-June 2006
  • Barratt Brown, Michael (1993) Fair Trade: Reform and Realities in the International Trading System. London: Zed Books, 1993
  • Becchetti, Leonardo and Fabrizio Adriani (2002) “Fair Trade: A ‘Third Generation Welfare’ Mechanism to Make Globalisation Sustainable” Rome: CEIS Working Paper No. 170, 2002
  • Berry, Hannah and Morven McEachern (2005) “Informing Ethical Consumers” pp. 69-87 in Harrison, Rob, Terry Newholm, and Deirdre Shaw (Eds.) The Ethical Consumer. London: Sage, 2005
  • Beviglia Zampetti, Americo (2006) Fairness in the World Economy: US Perspectives on International Trade Relations. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006
  • Bravo, Britt (2007) “Fair Trade Certified: An Interview with Paul Rice of TransFair USA” April 14, 2007. Available at: http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/006477.html
  • Burns, Maggie and Mick Blowfield (Undated) “Approaches to Ethical Trade: Impact and Lessons Learned” University of Greenwich, Natural Resources Institute. Available at: http://www.nri.org/NRET/burns_final.pdf
  • Cafédirect Annual Report & Accounts 2004/5.  Available at: http://www.cafedirect.co.uk/pdf/annual_reports/Annual_Report_2004-2005.pdf
  • Cafédirect Gold Standard. Available at: http://www.cafedirect.co.uk/pdf/gold_standard.pdf
  • Campher, Henk (2006) “Oxfam’s Coffee Campaign: An NGO Perspective” pp. 149-162 in Barrientos, Stephanie and Catherine Dolan (Eds.) Ethical Sourcing in the Global Food System. London: Earthscan, 2006
  • Crane, Andrew (2005) “Meeting the Ethical Gaze: Challenges for Orienting to the Ethical Market” pp. 219-232 in Harrison, Rob, Terry Newholm, and Deirdre Shaw (Eds.) The Ethical Consumer. London: Sage, 2005
  • Crane, Andrew (2000) “Facing the Backlash: Green Marketing and Strategic Reorientation in the 1990s” Journal of Strategic Marketing 8, 2000, pp. 277-296
  • Dicum, Gregory and Nina Luttinger (1999) The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from the Crop to the Last Drop. New York: New Press, 1999
  • Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell (2005) “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of the Day Chocolate Company” Sustainable Development 13, 2005, pp. 166-176
  • Durwael, Stefan (1994) “The Development of Fair Trade in the Netherlands” Available at: http://ca.geocities.com/fairtrade@rogers.com/fair645.html
  • Durwael, Stefan “(Short) History of Fair Trade”. Presentation given at “Fair Trade Futures: Living a Fair Trade Life” Conference, September 30-October 2, 2005, in Chicago. Available at: http://www.fairtradefederation.org/2005ftconference/pdf/workshops/European_FT_lessons_learned2.pdf
  • Economist (2007) “Thinking Out of the Box” April 7, 2007. p. 65
  • Fair Trade Federation “2005 Report: Fair Trade Trends in North America and the Pacific Rim” Washington, DC: Fair Trade Federation, 2005
  • Fair Trade Original Annual Report 2005. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.nl/UserFiles/File/Annual_Report_3lowres.pdf
  • Fairtrade Foundation (2004) “Fairtrade Bananas Impact Study: Dominica, Windward Islands” London: Fairtrade Foundation, June 2004
  • FLO Annual Report 2004-5. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/uploads/media/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf
  • FLO Annual Report 2005-6. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/uploads/media/FLO_Annual_Report_01.pdf
  • Fretel, Alfonso Cotera and Eloïse Simoncelli-Bourque (2003) “Manual sobre Comercio Justo” Lima: Grupo Red de Economía Solidaria del Perú (GRESP), 2003
  • Fridell, Gavin (2003) “Fair Trade and the International Moral Economy: Within and Against the Market” York University, Centre for Research on Latin America and the Caribbean (CERLAC), January 2003, Available at: http://www.yorku.ca/cerlac/documents/Fridell.pdf
  • Fridell, Gavin (2004) “The Fair Trade Network in Historical Perspective” Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2004, pp. 411-428
  • Fridell, Gavin (2006) “International Solidarity in the Era of Neo-liberalism: Fair Trade North in Comparative Perspective” Presented to the Canadian Political Science Association in June 2006. Available at: http://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2006/Fridell.pdf
  • Friedman, Milton (1962) Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962
  • Gallender, Sebastian (2002) “Interview with Deborah James, Fair Trade Director at Global Exchange”  University of Washington, Center for Communication and Civic Engagement, January 29, 2002. Available at: http://depts.washington.edu/gcp/pdf/djamesintrvw.pdf
  • Gendron, Corrine, Véronique Bisaillon, and Ana Isabel Otero (2006) “The Institutionalization of Fair Trade: More Than a Degraded Form of Social Action” Montréal: Université du Québec à Montréal, École des Sciences de la Gestion, 2006
  • Goodman, David and Michael Goodman (2001) “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and the Socio-Ecological Imaginary” Social Sciences Vol. 1, 2001, pp. 97-119
  • Grimes, Kimberly M. (2000) “Democratizing International Production and Trade: North American Alternative Trading Organizations” pp. 11-24 in Grimes, Kimberly M. and B. Lynne Milgram (Eds.) Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000
  • Harrison, Rob (2005) “Pressure Groups, Campaigns and Consumers” pp. 55-67 in Harrison, Rob, Terry Newholm, and Deirdre Shaw (Eds.) The Ethical Consumer. London: Sage, 2005
  • Hira, Anil and Jared Ferrie (2006) “Fair Trade: Three Key Challenges for Reaching the Mainstream” Journal of Business Ethics 63, 2006, pp. 107-118
  • Holmes, Stephen (1997) Passions and Constraint: On the Theory of Liberal Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997
  • Hudson, Ian and Mark Hudson (2003) “Removing the Veil? Commodity Fetishism, Fair Trade, and the Environment” Organization & Environment Vol. 16, No. 4, December 2003, pp. 413-430
  • IFAT Annual Report 2004. Available at: http://www.ifat.org
  • IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) (2000) “Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade: Two Concepts Based on the Same Holistic Principal [sic]” Bonn: IFOAM, 2000
  • Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., and Mario B. Monroy (2004) “Bringing the ‘Moral Charge’ Home: Fair Trade Within the North and Within the South” Rural Sociology Vol. 69, No. 2, 2004, pp. 169-196
  • James, Deborah (2000) “Justice and Java: Coffee in a Fair Trade Market” NACLA Report on the Americas Vol. 34, No. 2, September-October 2000, pp. 11-14
  • Keynes, John Maynard (1980) The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. 27: Activities 1940-1946, Shaping the Post-War World Employment and Commodities. Moggridge, Donald E. (Ed.) Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1980
  • Krier, Jean-Marie (2005) “Fair Trade in Europe 2005: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries” Brussels: Fair Trade Advocacy Office, December 2005
  • Kocken, Marlike (2003) “Fifty Years of Fair Trade: A Brief History of the Fair Trade Movement” December 2003. Available at: http://www.european-fair-trade-association.org/Efta/Doc/History.pdf
  • Lang, Tim and Yiannis Gabriel (2005) “A Brief History of Consumer Activism” pp. 39-53 in Harrison, Rob, Terry Newholm, and Deirdre Shaw (Eds.) The Ethical Consumer. London: Sage, 2005
  • Leclair, Mark S. (2002) “Fighting the Tide: Alternative Trade Organizations in the Era of Global Free Trade” World Development Vol. 30, No. 6, 2002, pp. 949-958
  • Levi, Margaret and April Linton (2003) “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics & Society Vol. 31, No. 3, September 2003, pp. 407-432
  • Lindsey, Brink (2004) “Grounds for Complaint? ‘Fair Trade’ and the Coffee Crisis” London: Adam Smith Institute, 2004. Available at: http://www.adamsmith.org/pdf/groundsforcomplaint.pdf
  • Littrell, Mary Ann and Marsha Ann Dickson (1999) Social Responsibility in the Global Market: Fair Trade of Cultural Products. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1999
  • Litvinoff, Miles and John Madelay (2007) 50 Reasons to Buy Fair Trade. London: Pluto Press, 2007
  • Low, William and Eileen Davenport (2005) “Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade” Sustainable Development 13, 2005, pp. 143-153
  • Lynd, Martha (2000) “The International Craft Network: A Double-Edged Sword for Maya Women” pp. 65-83 in Grimes, Kimberly M. and B. Lynne Milgram (Eds.) Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000
  • Maseland, Robert and Albert De Vaal (2002) “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150, 2002, pp. 251-272
  • Mayoux, Linda and Peter Williams (2001) “Case Study: Oxfam Fair Trade” October 2001. Available at: http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/OXFAMFairTradeOct01.pdf
  • Milgram, B. Lynne (2000) “Reorganizing Textile Production for the Global Market: Women’s Craft Cooperatives in Ifugao, Upland Philippines” pp. 107-127 in Grimes, Kimberly M. and B. Lynne Milgram (Eds.) Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000
  • Moore, Geoff (2004) “The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research” Journal of Business Ethics Vol. 53, 2004, pp. 73-86
  • Murray, Douglas, Laura T. Raynolds, and Peter Leigh Taylor (2003) “One Cup at a Time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade Coffee in Latin America” Colorado State University Fair Trade Research Group, March 2003
  • Mutersbaugh, Tad (Undated) “Global Standards & Rentier Capitalism: The Case of Certified Organic Coffee Networks” University of Kentucky (Has been pulled from the web in preparation for journal publication since I accessed it.)
  • National Public Radio (2007) “Fair Trade Is Getting Sweeter” An Interview with Erin Gorman of Divine Chocolate Company USA, for the “Marketwatch” program hosted by Mark Austin Thomas, February 14, 2007. Transcript available at: http://marketplace.publicradio.org/shows/2007/02/14/AM200702142.html
  • Nicholls, Alexander James (2002) “Strategic Options in Fair Trade Retailing” International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management Vol. 30, No. 1, 2002 pp. 6-17
  • Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal (2004) Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption. London: Sage Publications, 2004
  • Oxfam Australia Trading Annual Report 2002/2003. Available at http://www.oxfamshop.org.au/support/AnnualReport_full.pdf
  • Parrish, Bradley D., Valerie A. Luzadis, and William R. Bentley (2005) “What Tanzania’s Coffee Farmers Can Teach the World: A Performance-Based Look at the Fair Trade-Free Trade Debate” Sustainable Development 13, 2005, pp. 177-189
  • Polanyi, Karl (1944) The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press, 1944 (2nd Ed. 2001)
  • Simpson, Charles R. and Anita Rapone (2000) “Community Development from the Ground Up: Social-Justice Coffee” Human Ecology Review Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000, pp. 46-57
  • Singer, Peter (2006) “Why not pay more for Fairtrade food?” The Japan Times, April 23, 2006
  • Socías Salvá, Antonio and Natividad Doblas (2005) “El comercio justo: Implicaciones económicas y solidarias” CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública Social y Cooperativa No. 51, April 2005, pp. 7-24
  • Ransom, David (2001) The No-Nonsense Guide to Fair Trade. London: Verso, 2001
  • Raynolds, Laura (2000) “Re-embedding Global Agriculture: The International Organic and Fair Trade Movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17, pp. 297-309
  • Raynolds, Laura T. (2002) “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues” New York: Ford Foundation, Community and Resource Development Program, 2002
  • Renard, Marie-Christine (1999) “The Interstices of Globalization: The Example of Fair Coffee” Sociologia Ruralis Vol. 39, No. 4, 1999, pp. 484-500
  • Rice, Paul (2003) “Fair Trade: A More Accurate Assessment” Available at: http://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/null?&exclusive=filemgr.download&file_id=5910646&rtcontentdisposition=filename%3DAuthor_Response.pdf
  • Rogers, Tim (2004) “Small Coffee Brewers Try to Redefine Fair Trade” Christian Science Monitor, April 13, 2004
  • Ross, Andrew (2004) Low Pay High Profile: The Global Push for Fair Labor. New York: New Press, 2004
  • Starbucks Corporate Social Responsibility Annual Report 2006. Available at: http://media.starbucks.com.edgesuite.net/dotcom/csr_reports/OMR-005_FY06_CSR_AR.pdf
  • Starbucks Company Fact Sheet February 2007. Available at: http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/Company_Factsheet.pdf
  • Starbucks Company Profile February 2007. Available at: http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/Company_Profile.pdf
  • Starbucks Timeline February 2007. Available at: http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/Company_Timeline.pdf
  • Tallontire, Anne (2000) “Partnerships in fair trade: Reflections from a case study of Cafédirect” Development in Practice Vol. 10, No. 2, May 2000, pp. 167-169
  • Tallontire, Anne (2002) “Challenges Facing Fair Trade: Which Way Now?” Small Enterprise Development Vol. 13, No. 3, September 2000, pp. 12-24
  • Tallontire, Anne (2006) “The Development of Alternative and Fair Trade: Moving into the Mainstream” pp. 35-48 in Barrientos, Stephanie and Catherine Dolan (Eds.) Ethical Sourcing in the Global Food System. London: Earthscan, 2006
  • Taylor, Peter Leigh (2002) “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings” New York: Ford Foundation Community and Resource Development Program, September 2002
  • Thompson, E. P. (1971) “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century” Past and Present No. 50, February 1971, pp. 76-136
  • Tiffen, Pauline, Jacqui MacDonald, Haruna Maamah, and Frema Osei-Opare (2005) “From Tree-minders to Global Players: Cocoa Farmers in Ghana” pp. 10-43 in Carr, Marilyn (Ed.) Chains of Fortune: Best Practices in Linking Local Women Producers with Global Markets. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2005
  • van Tongeren, Paul (1982) “Development Education in the Netherlands” International Review of Education Vol. 28, No. 4, 1982, pp. 496-499
  • Waridel, Laure (2002) Coffee With Pleasure: Just Java and World Trade. Montréal: Black Rose Books
  • Young, Graham (2003) “Fair Trade’s Influential Past and the Challenges of the Future” Brussels: King Badouin Foundation, May 2003

Back to Texts Index.



This article has been visited 9897 times.




Masters Thesis for:
New School, Graduate Program in International Affairs
May 2007
Advisor: Professor Stephen Collier
Reader: Professor David Gold

Download PDF



© 2009-2018, Eric Fichtl